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Choosing appropriate research methodologies

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❶Does your project have clear links between theory and practice? Subjectivity and reflexivity in qualitative research II.

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STUDY DESIGNS USED IN DATA SOURCES

Questions Tags Users Badges Unanswered. How you plan to tackle the topic: Tim 1, 8 Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm , theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques. A methodology does not set out to provide solutions—it is therefore, not the same as a method.

Instead, a methodology offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods, or [best practice]s can be applied to a specific case, for example, to calculate a specific result. The methodology is the general research strategy that outlines the way in which research is to be undertaken and, among other things, identifies the methods to be used in it.

These methods , described in the methodology, define the means or modes of data collection or, sometimes, how a specific result is to be calculated. When proper to a study of methodology, such processes constitute a constructive generic framework , and may therefore be broken down into sub-processes, combined, or their sequence changed. A paradigm is similar to a methodology in that it is also a constructive framework.

In theoretical work, the development of paradigms satisfies most or all of the criteria for methodology. Any description of a means of calculation of a specific result is always a description of a method and never a description of a methodology.

It is thus important to avoid using methodology as a synonym for method or body of methods. Research must be conducted in a sensible and ethical manner; data must be analysed and presented in a rational manner. It is important that students do not expose themselves or others to dangers or risks when conducting research. Students need the approval of their dissertation supervisor before embarking on any type of fieldwork see the section on Research Ethics for more information.

In general, deductive research is theory-testing and inductive research is theory-generating. Often people link deductive research with quantitative experiments or surveys, and inductive research with qualitative interviews or ethnographic work. These links are not hard and fast — for instance, experimental research, designed to test a particular theory through developing a hypothesis and creating an experimental design, may use quantitative or qualitative data or a combination.

If your research starts with a theory and is driven by hypotheses that you are testing e. However much research combines deductive and inductive elements. Research design is vital to conducting a good piece of work. At the start of your research you need to set down clearly:. You and your supervisor will discuss your design and decide whether the research is 'do-able'. Your university may require you to produce a report e.

Other people may have to look at the design to ascertain whether there are ethical issues that affect your research. Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Researching society and culture. London, Sage Here are some references for specific methods: Interviewing for social scientists: Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement. Identifying a research topic: A template for structured observation: Guide to undergraduate dissertations in the social sciences. Content About this site What is a Dissertation?

How to start your dissertation Help with finding literature and research Formulating the research question Methodologies. Introduction What approach should I take - qualitative or quantitative? Can my dissertation be entirely literature-based? What is case study research? What's an empirical study? What is secondary analysis? Where do I find existing research data?

Collecting you own data - primary research Will my research be inductive or deductive? What about research design? Resources Further reading Research papers.

Methodologies 1 Introduction The way you approach your question will have a profound effect upon the way you construct your dissertation, so this section discusses the types of research you might undertake for your dissertation.

This video clip contains comments from the following academics: What if I want to find out about social trends, or the measurable effects of particular policies? What if I want to record people's views on an issue, and give them a 'voice'? Whether you choose qualitative or quantitative analysis will depend on several things: Your preferred philosophical approach realist, phenomenologist or constructionist. Your skills and abilities with methods of data collection if needed and analysis.

The topic or issue you are interested in. How you frame your research question. Can I combine qualitative and quantitative methods? You may be interested in doing an analysis that is primarily quantitative, looking at social trends, or policy implications. However you also want to introduce a 'human touch' by conducting one or several interviews asking what these trends mean to people or how particular individuals experience events. After doing your quantitative analysis, you should include a chapter or section on the qualitative data you have collected.

In your discussion of findings you can use the qualitative data to help you understand the patterns in the quantitative analysis. You may be interested in doing an evaluative case study of a process or policy.

You will have a particular focus — a 'case' that you are looking at. You will triangulate methods — i. You will analyse each type of data and describe this, and then write a discussion that shows how each piece of analysis contributes to the overall picture of what is going on. Download Case Study 6 Media research If you are interested, for example, in doing historical research, you may need to visit archives.

This has the following advantages: They allow you to discuss trends and social changes. The data are often collected through a random sample, which allows you to generalise to the population under consideration.

They may also allow you to make comparisons over time, as some datasets are products of longitudinal studies.

Smaller, more targeted datasets may also be available. Secondary analysis has disadvantages also: You have to find out something about that purpose, as well as the methods of collection, in order to justify your use of a secondary dataset.

Collecting you own data - primary research Quantitative data may also result from non-participant observations or other measurements e. Your research methods tutor can give you further information on these types of data, but here are some common quantitative data collection methods and their definitions: Self-completion questionnaires A series of questions that the respondent answers on their own.

Structured interviews Similar to a self-completion questionnaire, except that the questions that are asked by an interviewer to the interviewee. Structured observation Watching people and recording systematically their behaviour. Below are some data collection methods that you might want to use for your dissertation: In-depth interviews A way of asking questions which allows the interviewee to have more control of the interview.

Focus groups A form of interviewing where there are several participants; there is an emphasis in the questioning on a tightly defined topic; the accent is on interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning. Participant observation This involves studying people in naturally occurring settings. This was particularly useful for one of our respondents: Level 6 students at Sheffield Hallam University Note: Will my research be inductive or deductive?

What's all this about research design? At the start of your research you need to set down clearly: Your research focus and research question.

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use a 'living educational theory' approach to action research as it allows me to provide explanations for my own learning, my influence in the learning of others .

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Discussion of research approach is a vital part of any scientific study regardless of the research area. Within the methodology chapter of your dissertation to you need to explain the main differences between inductive, deductive and abductive approaches.

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A research method is a systematic plan for doing research. In this lesson, we'll look at the definition for a research method and examine the four. A methodology is the design process for carrying out research or the development of a procedure and is not in itself an instrument, or method, or procedure for doing things. Methodology and method are not .

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Methodological Approaches to Community-Based Research offers innovative research tools that are most effective for understanding social problems in general and change in complex person-environment systems at the community ebookgladys2.gaological pluralism and mixed-methods research are the overarching themes in this groundbreaking edited volume, as contributors explain cutting-edge research Pages: In this regard, this research aims to justify the use of 'Pragmatism' supporting mixed method approach with the help of Laughlin () matrix or methodological framework. Pragmatism for mixed method research at higher education level.