One of the hottest issues against nature theory is that there may be an existing "gay gene", which explains that gays are actually born that way. Another issue is that the criminal acts, tendency to divorce and aggressive behavior causing abuse can be justified by the "behavioral genes" once the researchers have proven their existence.
On the other hand, the behavioral genes are somewhat proven to exist when we take a look at fraternal twins. When fraternal twins are reared apart, they show the same similarities in behavior and response as if they have been reared together. The nurture theory holds that genetic influence over abstract traits may exist; however, the environmental factors are the real origins of our behavior. This includes the use of conditioning in order to induce a new behavior to a child, or alter an unlikely behavior being shown by the child.
According to John Watson, one of the strongest psychologists who propose environmental learning as a dominating side in the nature vs nurture debate, once said that he can be able to train a baby randomly chosen in a group of 12 infants, to become any type of specialist Watson wants.
He stated that he could train him to be such regardless of the child's potentialities, talents and race. Although it is true that fraternal twins raised apart have remarkable similarities in most respects, still the intervention of the environment have caused several differences in the way they behave.
In the end, we are still left with the confusing question: Are we born this way, or do we behave according to our life experiences? The nature vs nurture debate goes on and on, but still, it is a fact that we have traits that are predetermined by our genes, but we can still choose who we want to be as we travel through our lifetime.
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In addition, Skinner believed that language is something individuals learn from others via behavioral shaping techniques. John Watson, one of the most well-known psychologists to propose environmental learning as the dominating factor in the nature versus nurture debate, feels that our behavioral traits are purely a result of our surroundings and experiences.
He felt that he could condition a new behavior in a child or alter an already existing behavior that is considered to be unfavorable Sincero Watson believed that he could randomly choose any baby out of a group of twelve infants and raise the child to become any type of specialist he chose.
Just like nature, nurture affects our mental health, as well. While someone may have a genetic disposition for one condition or another, there still needs to be an environmental trigger for that condition to develop. In a similar way, the basis for addiction is not entirely determined by genetics. Certain environmental aspects, such as the habits of our friends, partners, and parents, can contribute significantly to the development of addiction.
A genetic predisposition to alcoholism becomes entirely more significant when the individual in question is frequently exposed to alcohol abuse and comes to view the harmful behavior as normal. The strongest predictor was life events and experiences that contributed to the development of the mental condition, such as abuse, bullying, or childhood trauma. Today, most people agree that our characteristics are a result of a combination of both nature and nurture.
There is enough support for both sides to completely count either side out. Clearly, both nature and nurture can affect the development of certain disorders. Francis Galton was the first to pose this question during the late nineteenth century. A relative of Charles Darwin, he felt that intellectual ability was mostly attributed to genetics and that the tendency for genius to be a familial trait was the result of natural superiority McLeod Many others have agreed throughout history, which has spurred an influx of intelligence testing; in particular, on separated twins and adopted children.
Arthur Jenson is an American psychologist who is a modern proponent of nature over nurture. Jenson cites average IQ scores in which black Americans scored significantly lower than white participants and suggested that as much as eighty percent of intelligence is inherited McLeod It was widely agreed that his study was tainted by social and political implications that are often drawn from various studies that claim to represent natural inequalities between race and other social groups.
Differences in IQ scores between various ethnic groups can be explained by biases in testing methods and social inequalities in access to resources and opportunities McLeod Similarly, it is hotly debated whether or not alleged intelligence difference in male versus female results is a consequence of biology or culture.
Now, however, the scientific world has come to understand that trying to place a numerical value on nature and nurture to judge which is more important is not really the right approach Davies Intelligence, for example, is a complex human characteristic that can exhibit itself in a wide variety of ways from genius to basic common sense.
By attempting to place quantitative values on the separate factors, we fail to focus on the fact that biology and environment interact in a host of important and intricate ways Ridley Today, most people agree that neither biology nor environment act independently of one another. Both are necessary for any characteristic to manifest. Because they are dependent on each other and interact in such a complex manner, it is illogical to attempt to think of them separately.
Rather than defending nativists or empiricists, most psychologists are now more interested in researching the ways in which nature and nurture interact with each other to develop characteristics and traits. In psychotherapy, this means that not only does there need to be a genetic disposition required for mental disorders to develop, but there also needs to be an environmental trigger, as well Feller The recognition of this important relationship is especially important given the genetic advancements made during the twenty-first century.
The Human Genome Project and advent of bioengineering sparked wide interest in tracing types of behavior to particular strands of DNA found on certain chromosomes McLeod Scientists expect to soon find specific genes that are linked to criminality, alcoholism, and other characteristics. Psychologists have been debating the influence of nature versus nurture over human characteristics for a very long time.
After the scientific world came to recognize that biology and environment both play a role, the emphasis shifted to determining which was more important. Now though, as we have come to truly understand the complexity of the relationship between our genetic dispositions and environmental triggers, we no longer focus on one versus the other, but rather the way they interact with and affect each other. While it is certainly helpful in the development of certain conditions for there to be a genetic disposition, there almost always needs to be an environmental trigger that causes the characteristic to manifest in an individual.
United Press International, Inc. Genes, experience, and what makes us human. Ultius Blog, 22 Apr. Click here for more help with MLA citations. Sample Critical Essay on Nature vs. Click here for more help with APA citations. Click here for more help with CMS citations.
This research paper, however, will focus on the nature versus nurture question in psychology. Since the early days of modern, scientific one area that has consistently been intertwined with the nature/nurture issue is intelligence.
Nature vs. Nurture When looking at the nature and nurture debate, overall, I believe that our thoughts, behaviors, and emotions as humans are more strongly influenced by our environment, or nurtured.
Nature vs Nurture: Genetics vs Environment Essay - The classic debated topic of Nature versus Nurture has been and will always be a quarrelsome subject in the scientific world. Meaning, the issue of the level to which environment and heredity sway behavior and development in a person. A controversial case study of the nature theory is the case of Albert, the young orphan, psychologist John Watson, performed experiments on to prove that the acquisition of a phobia could be explained by classical conditioning proving that nurture is the correct school of thought.4/4(1).
Position Paper: Nature vs. Nurture The controversy of nature vs. nurture has been going on for many years, and a decision has not yet been reached in which one is the most affective. Using the results of the countless tests done, everyday situations, and the twins experiment, I will prove that nature is a larger contributor to the outcome of. While nature has a single meaning, nurture is a broader term, which refers to upbringing, nutrition, and teaching. What’s the point? The difference between a simple nature vs nurture essay and nature vs nurture debate essay is that in another case, a student has to defend a particular point.