Social learning theorists such as Walter Mischel, Albert Bandura, and Julian Rotter see people as developing expectations and behavioral tendencies based on their histories of rewards and punishments and on their observations of others.
Psychoanalytic theorists view people as trying to achieve a balance between instinctual urges and the demands of reality. In contrast, humanistic theorists view people as motivated toward personal growth rather than homeostatic balance. Social learning theory views people as motivated to avoid punishments and obtain rewards. Psychoanalytic theorists believe that the driving forces of the personality are in the unconscious and thus are not directly accessible to the person except under exceptional circumstances such as those that arise in therapy.
Humanists are much more optimistic about the possibility of people coming to know their inner selves. According to Rogers, parts of the self that were once hidden can, when the individual receives acceptance from others, become expressed and incorporated into self-awareness. Social learning theories do not place much weight on hidden personality dynamics. From the social learning perspective, people are viewed as unable to verbalize easily some of their expectations, but no special unconscious processes are hypothesized.
Noimetic psychology, promulgated by Eric R. Maisel, combines some of these elements: Rather, the individual's "formed personality" is a product or version of that unknowable personality plus experience, and it is the individual's "available personality" that enables changes in personality. Most personality theories address the development of personality in childhood and the possibility for change in adulthood.
Psychoanalytic theorists believe that the most basic personality characteristics are established by the age of five or six, although there are some minor further developments in adolescence. While the person may change in adulthood in the course of psychotherapy and become better able to cope with the conflicts and traumas experienced during the early years, major personality transformations are not expected. Again, humanists are more optimistic than psychoanalytic theorists about personality change, although humanists, too, see the childhood years as important.
Thus, positive personality change is always seen as possible. Social learning theorists also see personality as changeable. A final issue is the relationship between personality and behavior. For social learning theorists, behaviors and related expectations are personality. Both psychoanalytic and humanistic theorists view behavior as a symptom or sign of underlying, internal personality dynamics rather than a sample of the personality itself.
Diverse behaviors may thus be related to a single internal characteristic. The study of personality is a scientific discipline, with roots in empirical research; a philosophical discipline, seeking to understand the nature of people; and the foundation for the applied discipline of psychological therapy.
While these three aspects of personality often support and enrich one another, there are also tensions as the field accommodates specialists in each of these three areas. The approach that focuses on personality as a scientific discipline has produced an array of methods to measure personality characteristics. They range from projective tests, such as having people tell stories inspired by ambiguous pictures, to more standardized paper-and-pencil personality tests in which people respond on bipolar numerical or multiple-choice scales to questions about their attitudes or behaviors.
The poor record of behavioral prediction based on personality traits, coupled with evidence that suggests that behavior does not have the cross-situational consistency that one might expect, has led Mischel and many other personality specialists to question the utility of most traditional personality theories. If one classifies personality characteristics and behaviors at a very general level, combining observations and predicting a group of behaviors, prediction improves.
Prediction on the basis of personality traits also improves when the situations in which one seeks to predict behaviors allow for individual variation as opposed to being highly constrained by social norms. Five basic personality traits often emerge in investigations: We've got you covered with our online study tools. The main difference between spontaneous recovery and reconditioning is: What is the difference between the study of semantics and the study of pragmatics?
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Click here to go to the Faces of Abnormal Psychology website. There, you will see twelve different disorders listed. For this module, view the following disorders: Borderline Personality Disorder Subs.
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A personality theory is an attempt at explaining behavior, including how different types of behavior arise and which patterns can be observed. Most, though not all, theories will fall into one of four types: psychoanalytic, humanistic, trait, and social cognitive. Need help with your Psychology homework and tests? These articles can help you understand the psychological aspects of the human mind. Contingency Theory; Responsiveness; Cognitive Learning (S‐S Learning) Algebra I: + FREE practice questions Over practice questions to further help you brush up on Algebra I. Practice now.
Psychology Assignment Help, Psychology Homework Help/ Psychology Project Help Psychology homework help, Psychology assignment help and Psychology project help provided by ebookgladys2.ga team helps psychology students at all levels. Personality theories seek to describe and explain the characteristics of thought, feeling, and behavior that differ among individuals and the coherence of these characteristics within a single individual. Personality theories describe approaches to human nature and provide the foundation for psychological therapies.