Formal training courses for developing energy conservation expertise should be introduced in various technical institutions to maintain a steady flow of experts in the field. A system of governmental recognition and awards should be instituted for honouring individuals and organizations for outstanding performance in energy conservation.
Pamphlets in local languages, suitable documentary films and programmes on radio and television should be introduced to create energy conservation awareness. While some of the measures recommended above have already been implemented, there are many where no decisions have been taken so far.
One hopes that the recommended initiatives get the attention of the policy makers and is taken note of while formulating the energy conservation bill that the Government is planning to introduce. While the technical and economic viability of improving the energy efficiency in India is quite substantial, there also exists a set of barriers that restrict the actual realization of this potential. The sector, in spite of being relatively organized, is highly disparate and dispersed, consisting of a large number of small manufacturing units.
Although there has been a gradual improvement in the specific energy use by the industrial sector, the energy conservation move has not acquired the desired momentum. Importance given by many towards initial cost minimization, disregarding the more efficient options which generally are more expensive.
Specified imported equipment both energy-efficiency equipment as well as instruments to monitor energy flows are fully exempt from the customs duty. In the previous section, we have studied the various options and methods of energy conservation in various equipment and systems in industries.
These options of energy conservation, when implemented, can save huge amount of energy. To demonstrate the amount of energy saved by implementing some of above mentioned energy conservation options, two case studies involving water pump and blowers are given in this section.
We see that by just using the variable frequency drives in these systems, huge amount of energy is saved. This energy saving opportunity when implemented in larger context, will save substantial amount of energy. Second pump was being operated to maintain to tank level for short intervals. It was operated approx 40 times in 24 hrs. Sometimes, second pump was being operated with by-pass valve half open to drain tank to avoid the over flow of cooling tower tank.
Pump was operated at full capacity to realize the increased flow to cooling tower. Further low and high level switch was installed with an Alarm and indicator to take care of manual labour and manpower wastage.
To utilize the motor power effectively a VFD was installed and operated at 30 Hz frequency. The pump RPM takes as and outlet valve was operated fully. Mechanical and electrical stresses during starts of the motor reduced to negligible. Hence the life of the equipment increased. Presence of a supervisor or monitoring of the level got avoided. Many systems use the same ducts to distribute air cooled by an evaporator coil for air conditioning.
The air supply is typically filtered through air cleaners to remove dust and pollen particles. One type of heat source is electricity, typically heating ribbons made of high resistance wire. This principle is also used for baseboard heaters, and portable heaters.
Electrical heaters are often used as backup or supplemental heat for heat pump or reverse heating systems. The use of furnaces, space heaters and boilers as means of indoor heating may result in incomplete combustion and the emission of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and other combustion by products.
Incomplete combustion occurs when there is insufficient oxygen; the inputs are fuels containing various contaminants and the outputs are harmful by products, most dangerously carbon monoxide which is a tasteless and odourless gas with serious adverse health effects.
Without proper ventilation, carbon monoxide can be lethal at concentrations of ppm 0. However, at several hundred ppm, carbon monoxide exposure induces headaches, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. The primary health concerns associated with carbon monoxide exposure are its cardiovascular and neurobehavioral effects. Carbon monoxide can cause atherosclerosis; the hardening of arteries, and can also trigger heart attacks. Neurologically, carbon monoxide exposure reduces hand to eye coordination, vigilance, and continuous performance.
It can also affect time discrimination. Therefore a proper ventilation system is required to remove these harmful gases. Ventilation is the process of changing or replacing air in any space to control temperature or remove any combination of moisture, odours, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, or carbon dioxide, and to replenish oxygen.
Ventilation includes both the exchange of air with the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Excess humidity, odours, and contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air. However, in humid climates much energy is required to remove excess moisture from ventilation air.
Kitchens and bathrooms typically have mechanical exhausts to control odors and sometimes humidity. Factors in the design of such systems include the flow rate which is a function of the fan speed and exhaust vent size and noise level. Direct drive fans are available for many applications, and can reduce maintenance needs. Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without the use of fans or other mechanical systems.
It can be achieved with operable windows or trickle vents when the spaces to ventilate are small and the architecture permits. In more complex systems, warm air in the building can be allowed to rise and flow out upper openings to the outside stack effect thus causing cool outside air to be drawn into the building naturally through openings in the lower areas. These systems use very little energy but care must be taken to ensure comfort.
In warm or humid months in many climates maintaining thermal comfort solely via natural ventilation may not be possible so conventional air conditioning systems are used as backups.
Air-side economizers perform the same function as natural ventilation, but use mechanical systems in the forms of fans, ducts, dampers, and control systems to introduce and distribute cool outdoor air when appropriate. An important component of natural ventilation is air changes per hour: For example, six air changes per hour means that the entire volume of the space is theoretically replaced with new air every ten minutes. For human comfort, a minimum of four air changes per hour is usually targeted, though warehouses might have only two.
Too high of a replacement rate may be uncomfortable, akin to a wind tunnel which typically have thousands of changes per hour. The highest recommended replacement rates are for crowded spaces like bars, night clubs, and commercial kitchens at around 30 to 50 air changes per hour. Air conditioning and refrigeration are provided through the removal of heat.
Heat can be removed through radiation, convection, and by heat pump systems through the refrigeration cycle. Refrigeration conduction media such as water, air, ice, and chemicals are referred to as refrigerants. An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling, ventilation, and humidity control for all or part of a building. The refrigeration cycle uses four essential elements to cool. The system refrigerant starts its cycle in a gaseous state.
The compressor pumps the refrigerant gas up to a high pressure and temperature. A metering device regulates the refrigerant liquid to flow at the proper rate. As the liquid refrigerant evaporates it absorbs energy heat from the inside air, returns to the compressor, and repeats the cycle. In the process, heat is absorbed from indoors and transferred outdoors, resulting in cooling of the building.
In variable climates, the system may include a reversing valve that switches from heating in winter to cooling in summer. By reversing the flow of refrigerant, the heat pump refrigeration cycle is changed from cooling to heating or vice versa. This allows a facility to be heated and cooled by a single piece of equipment by the same means, and with the same hardware. An alternative to central systems is the use of separate indoor and outdoor coils in split systems.
These systems, although most often seen in residential applications, are gaining popularity in small commercial buildings. The evaporator coil is connected to a remote condenser unit using refrigerant piping between an indoor and outdoor unit instead of ducting air directly from the outdoor unit.
Indoor units with directional vents mount onto walls, suspended from ceilings, or fit into the ceiling. Other indoor units mount inside the ceiling cavity, so that short lengths of duct handle air from the indoor unit to vents or diffusers around the rooms.
Dehumidification air drying in an air conditioning system is provided by the evaporator. Since the evaporator operates at a temperature below dew point, moisture in the air condenses on the evaporator coil tubes.
This moisture is collected at the bottom of the evaporator in a pan and removed by piping to a central drain or onto the ground outside. A dehumidifier is an air-conditioner-like device that controls the humidity of a room or building. It is often employed in basements which have a higher relative humidity because of their lower temperature and propensity for damp floors and walls. In food retailing establishments, large open chiller cabinets are highly effective at dehumidifying the internal air.
Conversely, a humidifier increases the humidity of a building. Air conditioned buildings often have sealed windows, because open windows would work against an HVAC system intended to maintain constant indoor air conditions.
Energy conservation is a very important part of energy planning and its management. It not only saves energy resources for future, avoids wasteful utilisation of energy, provides solution to energy crisis and ensures higher per capita availability/ consumption but controls environmental degradation and pollution.
Energy conservation is a vital element in the planning and management of energy sources. This approach not only necessitates the need to save energy for future use but derives efficient approaches of avoiding wasteful use of energy through the provision of effective solutions towards the energy crisis.
The studies conducted by Energy Management Centre, New Delhi have indicated that there is about 25% potential of energy conservation in the industrial sector. Related Articles: Essay on Urban Problems Related to Energy. Energy Conservation What can we do to help Carol D. Patterson Axia College University of Phoenix March 7, Introduction I am doing my essay on energy conservation. I would like to point out the good and the bad points of energy conservation.
The energy lost by the hot water and the energy gained by the cold water are very close amounts if they both are same mass. If the amount of hot water is more then the mass of the cold water, the energy gained by the cold water will be more then the energy lost by the hot water. Conservation of Energy essaysEnergy supplies can be extended by the conservation, or planned management, of currently available resources. There are three types of energy conservation practices. The first is curtailment; doing without. For instance, cutting back on travel to reduce the amount of.